All parity tenants are entitled to the housing allowance, regardless of the date of the tenancy agreement, if they are entitled to the housing allowance. In addition to the legal rights of the occupants with basic protection described above, equivalent co-operative tenants can also expect: members are on the board of directors of their co-op or vote for board members. At the same time, they are tenants of the company that owns the property and put it in the unique legal position of being both owner and tenant. A property lease is considered a form of rental like any other. As a result, the relationship between the co-op and the members is governed by the laws applicable to housing rents: owner-tenant`s right. Lofts are residential units in buildings originally built for commercial or industrial purposes. These units generally do not have a certificate of occupancy for residential use. The Loft Act (also known as section 7 of the Multiple Housing Act) provides the possibility of converting some of these units into legal housing. The Loft Act aims to protect the inhabitants of the loft by ensuring that certain renovations of the building are carried out in order to achieve minimum safety standards and to grant tenants legal rights and protection of rents.
However, not all loft units are covered by the Loft Act. The coverage of a particular loft depends on certain facts such as the location of the building and the occupancy history of the loft and building. The rights of tenants of housing companies are further determined by the fact that they live in a co-op or a co-owner housing company (see below). Another dynamic has also contributed to the large number of co-ops that were established in New York in the 1980s and 1990s, in this case by groups of low- and middle-income tenants. In the 1970s, many private owners in New York fought to preserve their aging properties in the face of high interest rates, redlining, white theft and rising fuel costs.   During this period, there was also arson by homeowners for insurance income, and widespread non-payment of property taxes – more than 20% of apartment buildings were late in the mid-1970s.  In 1977, the city adopted the Local Law #45, which allowed the city to initiate enforcement proceedings after only one year of non-payment of taxes and not after three years, which led to the assumption of thousands of buildings, many of which were occupied, by a complaint known as enforced execution.  In September 1978, the city`s housing corporation, the New York City Department of Housing Preservation and Development (HPD), created a series of new housing programs to give residents and community groups control and eventual ownership of In-Rem buildings.   In Canada in the 1990s, political will dissipated as other issues occupied politicians and governments tightened the financial belt, reduced the funds available for mortgages.